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Shull, , and the highly successful double cross hybrids using four inbred lines D. Jones c. University supported breeding programs were especially important in developing and introducing modern hybrids Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize Breeding and Seed Production pub.
By the s, companies such as Pioneer devoted to production of hybrid maize had begun to influence long-term development. Since the s the best strains of maize have been first-generation hybrids made from inbred strains that have been optimized for specific traits, such as yield, nutrition, drought, pest and disease tolerance.
Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer.
The program began in the s. Genetically modified GM maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte.
The difference between the two is largely controlled by differences in just two genes, called grassy tillers-1 gt1 , A0AYEZ1 and teosinte branched-1 tb1 , Q93WI2.
Several theories had been proposed about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica:  . In the late s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum , a related genus.
This theory about the origin of maize has been refuted by modern genetic testing , which refutes Mangelsdorf's model and the fourth listed above. Teosinte and maize can cross-breed and produce fertile offspring.
A number of questions remain concerning the species, among them:. The domestication of maize is of particular interest to researchers— archaeologists , geneticists , ethnobotanists , geographers, etc.
The process is thought by some to have started 7, to 12, years ago. Research from the s to s originally focused on the hypothesis that maize domestication occurred in the highlands between the states of Oaxaca and Jalisco , because the oldest archaeological remains of maize known at the time were found there.
Genetic studies, published in by John Doebley , identified Zea mays ssp. Archaeobotanical studies, published in , point to the middle part of the Balsas River valley as the likely location of early domestication; this river is not very long, so these locations are not very distant.
Stone milling tools with maize residue have been found in an 8, year old layer of deposits in a cave not far from Iguala, Guerrero. Doebley was part of the team that first published, in , that maize had been domesticated only once, about 9, years ago, and then spread throughout the Americas.
A primitive corn was being grown in southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America 7, years ago. Archaeological remains of early maize ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave in the Oaxaca Valley , date back roughly 6, years; the oldest ears from caves near Tehuacan , Puebla, 5, B.
Maize pollen dated to 7, B. As maize was introduced to new cultures, new uses were developed and new varieties selected to better serve in those preparations.
Maize was the staple food, or a major staple — along with squash , Andean region potato , quinoa , beans , and amaranth — of most pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures.
The Mesoamerican civilization, in particular, was deeply interrelated with maize. Its traditions and rituals involved all aspects of maize cultivation — from the planting to the food preparation.
Maize formed the Mesoamerican people's identity. It is unknown what precipitated its domestication, because the edible portion of the wild variety is too small, and hard to obtain, to be eaten directly, as each kernel is enclosed in a very hard bivalve shell.
In , George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn.
However, studies of the hybrids readily made by intercrossing teosinte and modern maize suggest this objection is not well founded.
Around 4, ago, maize began to spread to the north; it was first cultivated in what is now the United States at several sites in New Mexico and Arizona, about 4, ago.
During the first millennium AD, maize cultivation spread more widely in the areas north. In particular, the large-scale adoption of maize agriculture and consumption in eastern North America took place about A.
Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop. In , research by the USDA Forest Service suggested that the rise in maize cultivation to 1, years ago in what is now the southeastern United States corresponded with a decline of freshwater mussels , which are very sensitive to environmental changes.
Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture.
As a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation , maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than plants that use C3 carbon fixation such as alfalfa and soybeans.
Maize is most sensitive to drought at the time of silk emergence, when the flowers are ready for pollination. In the United States, a good harvest was traditionally predicted if the maize was "knee-high by the Fourth of July ", although modern hybrids generally exceed this growth rate.
Maize used for silage is harvested while the plant is green and the fruit immature. Sweet corn is harvested in the "milk stage", after pollination but before starch has formed, between late summer and early to mid-autumn.
Field maize is left in the field until very late in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be harvested until winter or even early spring.
The importance of sufficient soil moisture is shown in many parts of Africa, where periodic drought regularly causes maize crop failure and consequent famine.
Although it is grown mainly in wet, hot climates, it has been said to thrive in cold, hot, dry or wet conditions, meaning that it is an extremely versatile crop.
Maize was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters. Maize provided support for beans , and the beans provided nitrogen derived from nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria which live on the roots of beans and other legumes ; and squashes provided ground cover to stop weeds and inhibit evaporation by providing shade over the soil.
Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still used in the maize fields of some Native American reservations.
When maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to make more efficient use of land space.
In most regions today, maize grown in residential gardens is still often planted manually with a hoe , whereas maize grown commercially is no longer planted manually but rather is planted with a planter.
In North America, fields are often planted in a two- crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers.
Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat , is added to the rotation. Many of the maize varieties grown in the United States and Canada are hybrids. Often the varieties have been genetically modified to tolerate glyphosate or to provide protection against natural pests.
Glyphosate is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. This genetic tolerance is very rarely found in nature.
In the midwestern United States, low-till or no-till farming techniques are usually used. In low-till, fields are covered once, maybe twice, with a tillage implement either ahead of crop planting or after the previous harvest.
The fields are planted and fertilized. Weeds are controlled through the use of herbicides , and no cultivation tillage is done during the growing season.
This technique reduces moisture evaporation from the soil, and thus provides more moisture for the crop. The technologies mentioned in the previous paragraph enable low-till and no-till farming.
Weeds compete with the crop for moisture and nutrients, making them undesirable. Before the 20th century, all maize harvesting was by manual labour , by grazing , or by some combination of those.
Whether the ears were hand-picked and the stover was grazed, or the whole plant was cut, gathered, and shocked , people and livestock did all the work.
Between the s and the s, the technology of maize harvesting expanded greatly. Today, all such technologies, from entirely manual harvesting to entirely mechanized, are still in use to some degree, as appropriate to each farm's needs , although the thoroughly mechanized versions predominate, as they offer the lowest unit costs when scaled to large farm operations.
For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units.
This involved a large number of workers and associated social events husking or shucking bees. From the s onward, some machinery became available to partially mechanize the processes, such as one- and two-row mechanical pickers picking the ear, leaving the stover and corn binders, which are reaper-binders designed specifically for maize for example, Video on YouTube.
The latter produce sheaves that can be shocked. By hand or mechanical picker, the entire ear is harvested, which then requires a separate operation of a maize sheller to remove the kernels from the ear.
Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs , and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. Today corn cribs with whole ears, and corn binders, are less common because most modern farms harvest the grain from the field with a combine and store it in bins.
The combine with a corn head with points and snap rolls instead of a reel does not cut the stalk; it simply pulls the stalk down. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil.
The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery.
The combine separates the husk and the cob, keeping only the kernels. When maize is a silage crop, the entire plant is usually chopped at once with a forage harvester chopper and ensiled in silos or polymer wrappers.
Ensiling of sheaves cut by a corn binder was formerly common in some regions but has become uncommon. For storing grain in bins, the moisture of the grain must be sufficiently low to avoid spoiling.
If the moisture content of the harvested grain is too high, grain dryers are used to reduce the moisture content by blowing heated air through the grain.
This can require large amounts of energy in the form of combustible gases propane or natural gas and electricity to power the blowers. China produced The susceptibility of maize to the European corn borer and corn rootworms, and the resulting large crop losses which are estimated at a billion dollars worldwide for each pest,    led to the development of transgenics expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.
Maize and cornmeal ground dried maize constitute a staple food in many regions of the world. Maize is used to produce cornstarch , a common ingredient in home cooking and many industrialized food products.
Maize starch can be hydrolyzed and enzymatically treated to produce syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup , a sweetener; and also fermented and distilled to produce grain alcohol.
Grain alcohol from maize is traditionally the source of Bourbon whiskey. Corn flour is used to make cornbread and other baked products.
In prehistoric times Mesoamerican women used a metate to process maize into ground cornmeal, allowing the preparation of foods that were more calorie dense than popcorn.
After ceramic vessels were invented the Olmec people began to cook maize together with beans, improving the nutritional value of the staple meal.
Although maize naturally contains niacin , an important nutrient, it was not bioavailable without the process of nixtamalization.
The Maya used nixtamal meal to make varieties of porridges and tamales. Maize is a staple of Mexican cuisine.
Masa cornmeal treated with limewater is the main ingredient for tortillas , atole and many other dishes of Central American food.
It is the main ingredient of corn tortilla , tamales , pozole , atole and all the dishes based on them, like tacos , quesadillas , chilaquiles , enchiladas , tostadas and many more.
In Mexico the fungus of maize, known as huitlacoche , is considered a delicacy. Introduced into Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, maize has become Africa's most important staple food crop.
Maize can also be harvested and consumed in the unripe state, when the kernels are fully grown but still soft. Unripe maize must usually be cooked to become palatable; this may be done by simply boiling or roasting the whole ears and eating the kernels right off the cob.
Sweet corn , a genetic variety that is high in sugars and low in starch, is usually consumed in the unripe state. Such corn on the cob is a common dish in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Cyprus, some parts of South America, and the Balkans, but virtually unheard of in some European countries.
In the United States and Canada, maize is mostly grown to feed livestock , as forage, silage made by fermentation of chopped green cornstalks , or grain.
Maize meal is also a significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products. In moderate amounts, they also supply dietary fiber and the essential minerals , magnesium and phosphorus whereas other nutrients are in low amounts table.
Maize has suboptimal amounts of the essential amino acids tryptophan and lysine , which accounts for its lower status as a protein source.
Maize is a major source of both grain feed and fodder for livestock. It is fed to the livestock in various ways. When it is used as a grain crop, the dried kernels are used as feed.
They are often kept on the cob for storage in a corn crib , or they may be shelled off for storage in a grain bin. The farm that consumes the feed may produce it, purchase it on the market, or some of both.
When the grain is used for feed, the rest of the plant the corn stover can be used later as fodder, bedding litter , or soil amendment.
When the whole maize plant grain plus stalks and leaves is used for fodder, it is usually chopped all at once and ensilaged , as digestibility and palatability are higher in the ensilaged form than in the dried form.
Maize silage is one of the most valuable forages for ruminants. With or without a subsequent move to the cover of a barn, it was then stored for weeks to several months until fed to the livestock.
Today ensilaging can occur not only in siloes but also in silage wrappers. However, in the tropics, maize can be harvested year-round and fed as green forage to the animals.
Anagrams :. Noun :. Pronunciation :. Alternative forms :. Noun Synonyms :. Noun Derived terms :.
Etymology Noun :. Number of MAIS births per year. Popularity of the name Mais. Births with the first name Mais Country Boys. This means they may become cold instead of hot.
Sometimes, babies older than 6 months can have seizures that are triggered by fever. In many instances, a febrile seizure will take place during the first few hours of the illness.
They can be just seconds long, and usually last less than one minute. A baby may stiffen, twitch, and roll their eyes before becoming limp and unresponsive.
They may have skin that looks darker than usual. It can be a very concerning experience for parents, but febrile seizures almost never result in long-term damage.
If your baby seems to be having trouble breathing, call or your local emergency services immediately. Also call immediately if the seizure continues for more than five minutes.
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